The creation of the Center was determined, first of all, by the need to build an efficient state structure, the main purpose of which is the fight against economic crimes and corruption in the Republic of Moldova. Preventing them is a priority task for law enforcement agencies. Another requirement, no less important, was the need to optimize the structure and activity of the control bodies. The experience of previous years has not been able to solve the problems of economic crime, to increase the results in its fight against a number of causes, among which the most important ones can be mentioned: the duplication of functions by different state institutions on the one hand and the inefficient interaction between them, on the other. As a consequence, there were a considerable number of tentative and inappropriate controls and revisions, which had no effect on the level of criminality in the economy, and detract from economic activity. Each control body had its own competencies, its hierarchical subordination.
At the same time, among the CIS countries, the control bodies in Moldova alone did not have criminal prosecution functions. With the adoption of the Law on the Center for Combating Economic Crimes and Corruption, an institution has been set up in Moldova with a complex system for discovering economic crimes, starting with obtaining and documenting the operative information, carrying out the act of revision and control, prosecution and transmission of the file to the court. The Center was created as a result of the merger of the Financial Control and Revision Department of the Ministry of Finance; The Anticorruption Directorate of the Department for Combating Organized Crime and Corruption, as well as the Directorate of the Economic and Financial Police of the General Inspectorate of Police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and of the Financial Guard, which was subordinated to the Main State Tax Inspectorate.
Since June 6, 2002, a law enforcement agency specializing in countering economic, financial and fiscal crime, as well as corruption - the Center for Combating Economic Crimes and Corruption, has been set up in Moldova. The legal framework of the Center's activity was the Law on the Center for Combating Economic Crimes and Corruption no. 1104-XV, adopted by the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova on June 6, 2002, other normative acts, including the international treaties to which the Republic of Moldova is a party.
The creation of a specialized body in the fight against corruption and economic crimes was also determined by the European integration standards, which impose the need for specialized anti-corruption bodies.
Considering that corruption as a negative social phenomenon is a complex process, must also be the actions to curb corruption. Under the influence of increased risks at national and international level, many states have decided to adopt strategies to prevent and combat corruption.
In this way, the Center for Combating Economic Crimes and Corruption was an imperative of the time, the activity of the institution, initially, aimed at preventing, discovering, investigating, eliminating contraventions and economic, financial and fiscal crimes; counteracting corruption and protectionism; counteracting the legalization of assets and money laundering, conducting anticorruption expertise of draft legislative acts and draft Government acts in order to comply with the state's policy of preventing and combating corruption.
The first steps ...
Initially, according to the classification scheme approved on March 29, 2002, the first directors of the Center were designated:
- Mr Alexei Roibu, Director of C.C.C.E.C .;
- Valentin Mejinschi, Deputy Director, Head of Operations Investigation and Unannounced Documentary Control Department;
- Mr. Ghenadie Munteanu, Deputy Director, Head of the Control and Revision Department;
- Mr. Mircea Grigorev, Deputy Director, Head of the Department for Administrative Affairs.
Starting with 01.07.2002, after the publication of the Law of the Republic of Moldova on the Center for Combating Economic Crimes and Corruption no.1104-XV of 06.06.2002 in the Official Gazette, the transfer of the personnel from the Department of Financial Control and Revision of the Ministry Finance, the Anti-corruption Directorate of the Department for Combating Organized Crime and Corruption, the Directorate of the Economic and Financial Police of the General Inspectorate of Police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs; of the Financial Guard of the State Tax Inspectorate.
On December 13, 2002, the Center was reorganized and a new classification scheme was approved, according to which the subdivisions of the institution were located territorially in the cities of Chisinau, Balti, Edinet, Soroca, Ungheni, Orhei, Hincesti, Causeni, Cahul and Comrat.
This structure was operational until 13 May 2004, when the Center was reorganized, with the reduction of some subdivisions, as a result of which 8 territorial directorates were liquidated. Thus, of the 9 territorial subdivisions, only two remained in the Center: the Balti Territorial General Directorate and the General Directorate of Territory of Cahul.
During the 10 years of existence, C.C.C.E.C. has gone through 9 processes of structural reform and reorganization, 3 times its procedural competencies have been changed and 5 directors have changed.
Throughout the work of the Center, the reports of international institutions, especially the European ones, recommended strengthening the independence of C.C.C.E.C .. Despite these recommendations, until the adoption of Law no. 120 of May 25, 2012, the issue of ensuring the real independence of C.C.C.E.C. he has never been given due consideration in the process of reforming it.
On May 25, 2012, the Parliament adopted the Law no. 120 on the amendment and completion of some legislative acts, which was reformed by C.C.C.E.C .. Thus, C.C.C.E.C. has become the National Anticorruption Center (NAC) since 1 October 2012, an independent structure in its work, which is subject only to the law. NAC reports to the Parliament and the Government, the director of C.N.A. is called and dismissed by the Parliament on the basis of explicitly established criteria.
Competence of NAC includes the prevention of corruption and the fight against corruption, related crimes, money laundering and terrorist financing. Selection of NAC employees is base on very strict procedures, involving psychological and polygraphic checks, and the fairness and honesty of their work will be rigorously supervised by applying integrity tests and lifestyle monitoring.
Anticorruption struggle can be successful if it is trained in several fields, especially in the social, economic, political and other fields. Let us not forget that the implementation of the National Anticorruption Strategy is appreciated by the European Union as one of the integrative priorities, which means that the integration in the European Union is one of the prerogatives of our country.
The importance of the anticorruption movement is reflected by the following dimensions:
- humanitarian, because corruption stifles and distorts development;
- democratic, because corruption is a barrier to democracy building;
- ethics, because corruption prevents the development of the integrity of society;
- practice, because corruption destroys market relationships and deprives the company of potential benefits.
Operating with values such as legality, opportunity, credibility through integrity, professionalism and communication, the Center during its period of activity has demonstrated continuous improvement and certain steps towards a prominent institution status in the system of law enforcement bodies in the country.
Being the primary exponent of the anti-corruption struggle, NAC as the successor to C.C.C.E.C.'s right, must also become a promoter of institutional reforms that continue to ensure the implementation of anti-corruption policies, punitive and preventive measures. Becoming a truly independent and depoliticized institution with increased efficiency and results with visible impact, NAC will increase the population's confidence in the institution and the anti-corruption measures it applies, thus becoming an example for other authorities involved in the process of eliminating corruption.